Connected Universe

Chapter Two 


"Let us remember it is the brain that sees, and that 
the human eve is only a faulty window which shows 
us but an infinitesimal portion of the universe about us".

Figure 1 indicates the deceptions experienced in the telescopic observation of the universe about us. But it is not intended to show the true contour of the Universe whole; it is meant to express only the salient features of Physical Continuity. It shows how all connected land and sky areas of the Universe have positive continuity with the Earth. But It also shows how every sky area of the Universe must deceptively appear to telescopic detection as a globular area. And that deception of globularity imposes the delusion that the areas are isolated. 

Connecting areas, or parts, of the illustration's luminous outer sky curves may be considered "star" areas between the "planets." Though the Illustration shows them all more or less alike, there does exist variation in their luminous depth; but they are all areas of the luminous outer sky surface of the Universe. Variations in luminous depth result from differences in intensity of gaseous sky content. Such variations in turn develop differences in the astronomer's spectrum and spectroscopic analysis. All luminous areas of the Universe illustration are (in common with the Universe it represents) observable parts of an infinitely continuous land unbroken outer Sky surface. It covers underlying celestial land, water, land ice as it covers such elements of the terrestrial.

There is also shown the region of atmospheric density between land surface and the inner blue sky. The distance is the same at celestial level as it is at terrestrial level, and the oxygen content is sufficient to sustain vegetation and life at celestial level.

In the Copernican concept of planetary isolation the Sun is assumed to occupy the center of the dark stratosphere, and connecting outer sky areas of the Universe are assumed to be isolated units. And they are assumed to perform a rotative movement around the Sun center of a mathematically prescribed Universe subdivision known as the Solar System. That Solar System arrangement, which embraces the Earth, represents something of a combined celestial and terrestrial pinwheel, To make for easier comprehension of Physical Continuity, the pinwheel Solar System center, or Sun, has in a way been pulled out to afford it reasonable placement as a guide or leader for the entire connected Universe. As the illustration shows, every previously assumed isolated area of the Universe whole, including the Earth, holds its original position in the Universe structure, and every area maintains its daily and yearly relation to the Sun. Accordingly, the illustration shows how the land and the sky of the celestial extend to and connect with the Earths Imaginary Pole points. It shows that we may move beyond the Earth without "falling off the edge" or "falling off the 'ends.'"

The following descriptive material, in conjunction with the illustration, should afford ample guidance for comprehension of the factual Universe as it was created.

1) The dark center represents the perpetually dark stratosphere surrounding the terrestrial and the celestial It is part of the dark void of infinity wherein the Universe whole was created.

2) The luminous outer partial disks, to be observed against stratosphere darkness, represent the sky light developed over all areas of the Universe. A continuity of the same blue sky we observe from land surface everywhere on the terrestrial is seen by Inhabitants of every other Universe area when they, as do we, look up or out from their respective land-surface positions. In looking through their inner blue sky at night, they observe the luminosity of our gaseous inter sky areas in precisely the same manner we observe their outer sky luminosity against the darkness. Since their lenses cannot be expected to penetrate through areas of our luminous sky light and detect the land under our sky. It is most likely that they have deduced as erroneously of our and as we have of their land. 

3) Therefore, the inner side of all outer luminous disk like areas of the illustration may be understood to represent the familiar gaseous sky envelope observable from any terrestrial location as our particular blue sky. From all other land areas of the Universe the blue sky likewise seen represents the particular sky of inhabitants of such areas. 

Inasmuch as recent U.S. Naval stratosphere photographs of outer sky areas prove them to be luminous and presenting the identical appearance of celestial areas, confirmation as had that there exists the same gaseous sky content for the celestial as is known to envelop the terrestrial. Since the luminosity of outer terrestrial sky areas corresponds to that of outer celestial sky areas, it follows that atmospheric conditions underlying the sky envelope where our celestial cousins dwell must correspond to atmospheric conditions prevailing at terrestrial level. Thus the inner blue sky must also correspond throughout the entire Universe. Our experiments show that without the existence of an inner blue sky of gaseous content there could be no luminous outer sky, which is an expression of sky gas, to be observed over terrestrial or celestial areas. 

4) Hence any Martians, Venusians, Jupiterians, or Lireans, looking up or out from their respective land positions, are during the day permitted to view their gaseous blue sky envelope with the same varying depth, or shades, of blue that we observe in our blue sky. The depth of blue will depend upon atmospheric conditions prevailing at the various celestial locations at the time of observation. Further, as the celestial sky's chemical content, or gaseous intensity, varies from time to time and from place to place, as does the content of our sky, it produces a corresponding variation in the intensity of outer sky luminosity to be ob-served against the dark stratosphere by remote observers everywhere. Therefore, the inner areas of the illustration, denoting terrestrial and celestial sky as observed from land surface, should not be of a constant blue depth. By the same token, the outer sky luminosity will not be constant but there are variations in luminous quality. As will be later shown, variations in luminous sky movement produce, or accompany, change of blue and luminous sky expressions. 

5) At night, inhabitants of all other parts of the Universe observe seemingly globular and isolated areas of our luminous outer sky in the same manner as we are permitted to observe luminous, seemingly globular and isolated areas of their sky. They are permitted to see only the outer luminous expression of our sky, as we see luminous areas of their outer sky. Since their most powerful telescopes cannot penetrate through our sky light, they cannot hope to see our land or our blue sky as we see it until they arrive at our particular land position. Neither can we hope to see their land or their inner blue sky areas until we arrive on the land under their blue sky. As our most powerful telescopic lenses cannot penetrate through sky light of the celestial, we have been unable to detect the land and vegetation under the luminous sky enveloping the entire celestial realm.

6) Moreover, over the luminous outer surface of our entire terrestrial sky, which we know extends unbrokenly, other dwellers of the Universe are compelled to observe millions of apparently globular and therefore seemingly isolated "bodies". They are all luminous sky areas, and their number would depend on the power of observing telescope lenses and other physical factors herein described. 

7) Nowhere throughout the length and width of our terrestrial land and sky or throughout the endless land and sky of the created Universe do disks, spheres, or globes, actually exist, despite their seeming existence. They are entirely lens-created; they represent the most striking examples of lens illusions ever known to man.

8) Therefore, the illustration's inner blue sky horizonal curves and the outer luminous sky curves are intended to indicate the deceptions experienced in observation. Neither the Earth nor any part or the universe about the Earth curves in agreement with the deceptions of curvature here presented. We may grant such curves realism only insofar as they have been created by the lenses. No lens can escape producing a curve at the proper distance on the horizontal or the perpendicular. As previously related, the physical structure and properties of all lenses demand that the curve be created. Then the lens-created curve is accentuated by concept into the full-bodied and isolated globe or sphere as distance from the photographed or telescoplcally observed area or object is increased. There is in reality no such curvature to the endless sky and land continuous throughout the Universe.

The only such curvature that might possibly exist, and which we could never hope to determine, would be that of a conceptional nature, having the Universe as a whole curve in infinite time and space. Granting such an unverifiable arrangement for the connected Universe whole would in no way interfere with the all-important factor that the Universe is connected and continuous and that journey may be had to all areas thereof by movement on the same physical level with this Earth. That indicated movement would be straight ahead, north from the North Pole and south from the South Pole.

9) Photographs, taken whenever and wherever—in Peru, in Asia Minor, or in our own Rocky Mountains—in no way prove the so-called "curvature of the Earth." They prove only that the utilized lenses could not avoid developing curves that have been mistakenly Interpreted as applicable to the Earths contour. The lens itself created the curvature in the same manner that the optic lens, by grace of its structure and function, creates curves and deceptive horizons within the experience of everyone.

For example, does the sky really curve down and meet the water or the land where horizons indicate it does? We know now that it doesn't, despite appearances, because physical contact with such horizonad points proves there is no such meeting.

Does the square or U-shaped opening to a tunnel draw together, as it appears to do, and become globular to our sight as distance within the dark tunnel and away from daylight at the opening is increased? Though it deceptively appears to draw together and become globular, experience has taught us that the entrance retains its original shape and size.

Does not the square top of a brick chimney become deceptively globular as photographing altitude is increased directly over the chimney opening? Such deceptive appearance must be imposed by the lens; knowledge dictates that the chimney opening docs not become globular. One of the classical and most common expressions of the unavoidable deceptions ensuing from lens function is that of the two separate railroad tracks which seem to merge, or meet, in the distance.

A very modern example of illusion resulting from lent function is presented in the flight of jet planes. As the speedy jet is observed moving on a direct horizontal course from east to west, or vice versa, it must deceptively appear to be shooting up on the perpendicular, then prescribing a definite curve or arc as it approaches. Then at it passes overhead and recedes in the distance, it appears to be dropping down to the land surface. The jet's horizontal course remains the same from the time it was sighted on one horizon until it was lost to view at the opposite horizon, but the lens develops the illusion that the jet was first shooting up and then shooting down. Nothing more vividly attests that the lens produces the curve. 

These examples, plus a thousand others that could be cited, eloquently express that all lenses are subject to the functional error of the optic lens, for all lenses were patterned after the human eye lens. This means that the lens itself, in drawing to a focal point, creates the illusory curve, and that curvature illusion in turn produces "globular" areas and objects where in fact nothing rounded or globular exists.

Therefore, as the inner blue sky seemingly dips or curves to meet the land or water, under the power of lens convergence which creates "our horizons, so do the luminous outer sky areas of the Universe suffer the same affliction. It makes no difference if the sky area is of one hundred miles or of one hundred thousand miles. As distance is increased, the original illusory curve becomes deceptively filled in with body property, and there is projected the further illusion of a completely globular and isolated area. In such manner does the universe about us become cluttered with "isolated globular" and spherical "bodies" that have no part in the structure of the Universe.

In the 1931 stratosphere ascent of Professor Auguste Piccard, the photographing camera lens produced a partial disk of the terrestrial sky area which Piccard barely penetrated at an altitude of ten miles. That disk development which was referred to as an "upturned disk," was partial only because sufficient distance had not been achieved from the gaseous sky area. In the subsequent 1935 Air Corps' ascent to an altitude of fourteen miles there was sufficient distance from the sky area, and the partial disk became rounded-out to present the appearance of a complete disk.

One may more readily understand that lens development of curves and disks if one holds in mind a picture of the first-quarter, or crescent, Moon and mentally follows its monthly course of filling-in, or completion, to the full Moon.

Confirmation since 1935 of the unfailing development of the illusions described in all telescopic observation of the universe about us attests to the reality of Physical Continuity. Every foot of the endless celestial empire telescopically observed and astronomically designated "stars", "planets", etc., is thereby shown to be as physically connected— as Figure 2 describes without illusory curves. The celestial is shown to be as much a continuance of this Earth area as the various countries of the Earth are physically connected and made continuous by the known land and water links. 

The terrestrial has affinity with the celestial in the same manner that the States of these United States are affiliated with the national whole. 

There must deceptively appear to be physical disconnections in the Universe whole, where each faultily observed celestial and terrestrial sky area, in being brought to convergence under lens functioning, seemingly becomes isolated from its neighboring area—as previously described, an inescapable condition of observation. Strange as it may seem, the necessary allowances for such a handicap of observation have never been made, because the handicap, though known to be applicable to observations at terrestrial level, is denied application to observations at celestial level. Complete domination by the mathematical prescription of celestial mechanics—though that prescription contains no ingredients from the Universe of reality—has endowed illusions developed in telescopic observation of the Universe with a reality they cannot and do not possess. Therefore, we should never lose sight of the fact that the designation of celestial areas as globular and isolated is at the best a vague assumption within the world of the "astro mathematician", rather than a creative fact within the world of things of which we are a part.

With further observation of Figure 1 one may realize that, were one occupying any area of the illustrated Universe whole or observing any area thereof from a stratosphere position, the depicted curved and luminous outer sky areas of the terrestrial and the celestial would deceptively appear as full-bodied isolated globular entities. This observational condition would result from the fact that when the luminous curved surface area is detected, one's mind is automatized to fill in the body proportion. In the drawing it is not possible to show the full globularity which such curved areas impose on the mind and make for the concept of isolation. Average intelligence can readily discern that the luminous curved areas will not be connected through observation. They are always disconnected. Though connected here for illustrative purposes, observation would hold a dark area at every point of connection. Thus would there develop the concept of their isolation.

Study of the inner sky curves may serve as a guide for understanding that the lens does not conveniently prepare appearances as illustrated. The lens does just the contrary. It severs each connection; then stratosphere darkness envelops each curved area on both sides and underneath. In so doing, the area becomes Isolated to all appearances. Though the inner sky curves have also been drawn as connected, the lens observing any area of the blue sky causes It seemingly to curve down to underlying land and water. In such manner are the horizons produced. The blue sky and the outer luminous sky continue unbrokenly ad infinitum as shown in Figure 2, but the lens must deny such realistic continuity.

Life is no more than our individual concept of life: we all see and believe only that which we want to see and believe. 

Hence ''primed observations are always of doubtful value—"as dubious as spies.'' Nonexistent celestial globular and spherical areas are clothed with reality through the capriciousness of optic lenses, aggravated by other lenses, and conceptional enlargement of the faulty Image. So long as one observes luminous celestial and terrestrial sky curves produced by the lens and holds the illusory globe to be reality, it is unlikely that anything but globes and spheres will be encountered, regardless of the power of telescopic lenses. Moreover, the assumed Earth sphere and Its companion celestial pseudo-spheres have become so firmly fixed in mind that presentations of such spheres, which naturally show full-bodied properties, are accepted as being factually descriptive of the composition of the Universe.

Such acceptance is had in spite of the overpowering fact that no telescopic observer and no photographing camera ever recorded realistic body proportions for any area of the Universe. The lenses detected and reproduced only a disk-like surface area which was credited with body fullness. Therefore, the glamorously portrayed Earth globe and its celestial counterparts presents nothing more profound than an outstanding expression of lens error and human misconception based on that error, plus the artful embellishment of globe symbols by otherwise capable artists who likewise are under the domination of the popular misconception.

Modern discovery establishes that the assumed Isolation of the terrestrial from the celestial is a fallacy. The Earth's northern connecting land link with the celestial is confirmed by extensive penetration of land beyond the North Pole point of theory. In February, 1947, a United States Navy Arctic expeditionary force, under the command of Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, achieved a memorable sevenhour flight over land extending beyond the northern geographic "center" or "mathematically prescribed northern end" of the Earth. That flight confirmed that there Is no northern physical end to the Earth and that the 1543 conclusions were most premature. The northern Physical Continuity of the Earth with celestial areas of the Universe also has its counterpart In the land now known to extend beyond the South Pole.

All future physical progress beyond the imaginary North Pole and South Pole points must and will lead into real land areas of the Universe appearing "up", or out, from our present terrestrial position. We may move, as Rear Admiral Byrd moved, beyond the North Pole and out of physical bounds of this Earth, on the same physical level as this Earth.

Our movement into land areas of the universe about us need never vary from known movement in Journeys from New York City to Chicago, or from Boston to Hong Kong, or between whatever terrestrial points one is pleased to consider. We may fly the distance with means now at hand, or we may journey In any of the other established modes for making possible journeys from city to city and from nation to nation of the terrestrial area.

Except for the vast Ice barriers at the Arctic and Antarctic regions, especially at the Antarctic, we might even walk. However, early explorers found walking and dog-sled movement most unsuitable transportation over frigid polar areas. That is one of the reasons why there was no concerted early effort to peer "over the top of the world," so called, to determine what actually exists beyond the supposed terrestrial ends. Further reason may have been that one does not perilously attempt to penetrate into a beyond which his concept denies. If concept has not first established the thing or condition—in this case land beyond the Poles—it cannot and does not "exist," despite its reality.

Despite the lamentable restrictions of theory, men have persistently wondered about the Earth's extent The earliest attempt to reach the North Pole point and to satisfy that curiosity was made by Sir Martin Frobisher, of England, in 1578. But the notable accomplishment of just reaching the Pole point could in no manner permit determination of territory extending beyond the Pole point and out of bounds of the theorized Earth "globe." One is not permitted a vista of polar territory to almost unlimited horizons as one is in viewing the plains of Kansas. One's determination must be based solely on the mathematical formula which maintains that the geographic point reached is in fact the end. And though infinity extend beyond in a continuous land and water course, men would have no reason or inclination to penetrate that course if concept holds that such course did not exist. Therefore, though the space myth did not restrict movement to the polar areas of an assumed Earth ending, it did most definitely restrict movement beyond such supposed Earth ends, where men believed they would be projected into spare assumed to exist beyond the ends.

Hence the awesome conjectured northern and southern space of the Copernican Theory erected the identical barriers to northern and southern progress as the obsolete Ptolemaic Theory had imposed on movement east and west from the Old World prior to 1402. How fearful has been the word "space"! 


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